Foot Related Conditions

Bunion (Hallux Valgus)

A bunion (Hallux valgus) is an enlargement or swelling of the joint at the base of your big toe and additional bone formation in some cases. Often this causes the joint at the base of the toe to bulge outward from the inner side of the foot, and the big toe points inward (toward the smaller toes).

Bursitis is a painful swelling of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) at the base of the big toe that occurs because of the hallux valgus.


Inflammation of the synovial bursa of the great toe usually resulting in enlargement of the joint and lateral displacement of the toe.

What causes it?

The causes of bunions include, but aren’t limited to:

  • Footwear
  • Disease
  • Genetics
  • Overpronation

Bunions are progressive deformities. You don’t wake up one morning, and there it is. The amount of excess foot motion you are born with will determine how fast it develops. The area will often become painful and red. Controlling the excess pronation can often take pressure off the first toe joint and help relieve the pain, but it will not change the enlargement size.

How do you treat it?
  • Proper fitting footwear to alleviate pressure.
  • Bunion shield pads or modified shoes may also help relieve painful pressure over the bunion.
  • Prescription orthotics to reduce abnormal bone pressures and underlying biomechanical causes
  • Severely painful bunions or a severe degree of hallux valgus may require surgical correction.
How do you prevent it?
  • Proper fitting footwear allows enough room or width in the toe area to avoid scrunching of the toes.
  • Prescription orthotics to reduce abnormal bone pressures and improve foot function.

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